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Calorie Table
Calorie Tables contain the following specifications:
Energy
Energy
Protein
Carbo-
hydrate
Fibre
Fat
Fat-
calories
Fat MUF
Cholesterol
kcal
Calories
kJ
Joule
g
g
g
g and %
%
g
mg

Term

Explanations for the terms used in the Calorie Tables

Accuracy

Accuracy of the Calorie Table

The data provided in the Calorie Tables are average values and are only meant to guide you. The results of these values vary slightly from calorie table to calorie table because of biological differences such as soil conditions, cultivation and feeding conditions, weather, preparation methods etc.

kcal

Kilocalorie (kcal, 1000 Calories): This value is referred to as 1 calorie in colloquial language although what is really meant it 1 Kilocalorie (Kcal).

This unit provides the amount of energy that foods contain. The term "Kilocalorie" is outdated. Nowadays the unit Joule or Kilo joule ("Abbreviation: kJ) is used. 1 kcal is 4 184 kJ

1 kcal is defined as the amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1kg water from 14.5° to 15.5°C. (58° - 60°F) at an atmospheric pressure of 760mm Hg.

Energy contains the 3 main nutrients; protein, fat and carbohydrates as well as alcohol:

1 g protein provides 4.1 kcal or 17.1 kJ.
1 g carbohydrate provides 4.1 kcal or 17.1 kJ.
1 g fat provides 9.3 kcal or 38.9 kJ.
1 g alcohol provides 7.1 kcal or 29.3 kJ.

kJ

Kilo joule (kJ) = 1000 Joule. Joule has been the valid international measuring unit for energy since 1977.

The term Joule (rhymes with tool) is named in honour of English Physicist J.P. Joule. One joule is t the work done in applying a force of one newton for a distance of one metre

The energy in nutrition used to be given in calories (cal) or kilocalories (kcal). The following conversion applies: 1 J = 0,239 cal, 1 kcal = 4,184 kJ.

The energy released during the digestion (burning) of nutrients in the organism, is measured in kilo joules (kJ). In this way the amount of energy in nutrients can be calculated which can be useful for certain diets.

Protein

Recommended consumption: 8 to 10% of the calories (ca. 40-50g/day) should come from protein sources. Proteins, carbohydrates and fats are the main components of the human diet. The body can do without fat for a certain amount of time but a steady and constant supply of protein is essential as the body cannot synthesise protein by itself.

Fat

Recommended consumption: 30% of the calories (ca. 65g/day) should come from fat sources. Fat has the highest amount of energy amongst the 3 nutrients (fat, carbohydrate and protein). Its energy content is 9.3.kcal/g.

Carbohydrate

Recommended consumption: at least 50% of the calories (>250g/day) should come from carbohydrate sources. Carbohydrates are, along with fats and proteins, the most important nutrients that a human needs.

Carbohydrates act as the primary energy supply of the human body. Carbohydrates can be divided into three groups according to their chemical composition: monosaccharides (e.g. glucose), disaccharides (e.g. sucrose, household sugar) and polysaccharides (starch).

Fibre

Most fibres are carbohydrates. It used to be believed that fibres could not be used by the human body, as the digestive juices in the body did not contain enzymes capable of breaking down these compounds. It was overlooked that a part of the fibre is fermented by enzymes of micro organisms of the large intestines. Found were both gases and short chain fatty acids which can be utilised by the body. The energy gained from fibre (2-3 kcal/g) is negligible as a result of the low amount provided. The recommended consumption by the DGE (Deutsch Gesellschaft für Ernährung - German Nutrition Society) is 30g of fibre a day. The average German eats less than the recommended amount.

Fat Calories

Fat Calorie Content: Fat calories give the percentage of calories that is made out of fat in the food item. A value of 30% in the calorie table means that 30% of the total calories are fat. How many grams of fat depends on the calorie content of the food items.

Fat (PUF)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids: Some polyunsaturated fatty acids cannot by synthesised by the body and therefore need to be consumed in the form of food. The values in the calorie tables show how many grams are PUFs in the total amount of fat (fat in the calorie table). These co called essential fatty acids or "good" fats are divided into 2 groups:

- Omega-6-Fatty Acids
- Omega-3-Fatty Acids

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a fatty-like substance which is made in the liver. It is an essential fundamental substance in all organisms. Cholesterol is found in all cells of the human body. The body can supply itself with all the necessary amounts of cholesterol (roughly 1 to 1,5g a day) which means that there is no need to consume additional cholesterol. Experts have completely different opinions on what kind of influence foods, such as eggs, have on the cholesterol levels.

High blood cholesterol can lead to heart diseases. There is no cholesterol in plant vegetables and fruits.

mg

Milligram: 1.000 mg = 1 g

µg

Microgram: 1.000 µg = 1 mg; 1.000.000 µg = 1 g

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